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relate bystolic price What are biofuels?
еngineer nizoral shampoo price “Biofuel” is a term for fuels derived from renewable plant and animal biomass. They can be divided into four groups:
- alcohols such as ethanol, which are produced from sugar cane, corn and grain
- biodiesel made of rapeseed, palm, soybean, sunflower, and other vegetable oils
- biogas obtained from organic matter such as crop residues and dung.
- solid and liquid biomass such as vegetable oils, plant fibers, solid waste and wood pellets used in combined heating and power plants, either exclusively or in combination with fossil fuels
How are biofuels a part of my life?
lamisil canada Biofuels have come into wide use in recent years in motor vehicles, power generation and heating. European Union (EU) directives require the addition of an increasing share of biofuels to fossil fuels for motor vehicles. Commercially available fuels in the EU always contain biofuels. Germany, for example, mandated a share of 6.25% in 2012, and it is set to go up to 10% by 2020. Super E10 currently contains 10% ethanol from wheat and sugar beets. 3.8 million tons of biofuels were consumed in Germany alone in 2010. The EU and governments of the Member States are promoting the production and use of biofuels with subsidies and blending mandates.
Are biofuels environmentally friendly?
purchase accutane online No. Industrial monocultures used to grow biofuels are heavily treated with synthetic fertilizers and pesticides that are hazardous to the environment and human health. Increasingly, genetically modified crops are being used that entail incalculable dangers. Furthermore, growing fuel crops in relatively arid regions requires considerable amounts of groundwater for irrigation, posing a threat to the drinking water supplies of local communities.
Are biofuels CO2 neutral?
http://explicitsports.com/wp-content/uploads/rtMedia/tmp/mba-dissertation-in-project-management-6241.pdf No, far from it. The industry and policymakers resort to tricks and misleading calculations to make biofuels appear environmentally friendly. In reality, biofuels accelerate global warming in several ways:
Fuel crops absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and release it again completely when the fuels are burned. This does not, however, take into account the carbon released by the plants that covered the land before the fuel crop was planted. For example, rainforests and peat forests are burned in Southeast Asia to make room for palm oil plantations.
Deforestation is responsible for about 18 percent of global carbon emissions, and agriculture for a further 14 percent. Producing one ton of palm oil on former peat forest land entails the release of ten to thirty tons of CO2. Rainforests are also a vital regulator of the global climate and their destruction leads to further warming and drying. Clearing too much rainforest land can lead to an abrupt tipping point for the ecosystem and attendant effects on the climate.
A further problem: the farming and production of biofuels requires large quantities of fossil fuels to operate machines and vehicles, to plow and sow the fields, to manufacture and apply fertilizers and pesticides, and to harvest, transport, store and process the crops. Fertilizers also release considerable amounts of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas nearly 300 times more potent than CO2.
Are biofuels the solution to the impending energy crisis?
No, absolutely not. According to Hartmut Michel, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1988 for his work on photosynthesis, the biofuel that can be produced on a given land area contains less than 0.4 percent of the solar energy received by that area over the same period. Fuel crops are thus extremely inefficient in comparison to modern solar panels, which convert 15-20 percent of incident solar energy into electricity. Plant biomass contains a maximum of two percent of the incident solar energy (or considerably less in the case of sugar cane, rapeseed, soybean, corn and grain), and the efficiency of conversion of biomass into biofuel is about 0.15 percent to 0.3 percent.
This also explains the enormous space requirements for biofuels. Meeting humanity’s current energy needs using only biofuels would mean covering the entire surface of the Earth with fuel crops.
Oil, gas and coal are fossil biomass of dead plants and animals. In the course of only one century, we burned a significant share of the planet’s fossil energy – a resource that took 700 million years to form. The biologist Jeffrey Dukes has calculated that the fossil fuel we burn every year is equivalent to the entire biomass that grows on the planet – on land and in the oceans – in 400 years.
o biofuels help alleviate poverty in developing countries?
No, most farmers in developing countries only have small plots. The economies of scale needed to serve the biofuel requirements of the world market profitably means converting vast tracts of land into industrial monocultures – thus limiting the biofuels business to corporations and large landowners.
It is not uncommon for local communities to be evicted and deprived of their ancestral land by the expansion of plantations. Biofuels thus go hand in hand with violence, human rights violations and poverty. Oil palm plantations in Indonesia, Malaysia, Colombia and Ecuador, or soybean cultivation in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay provide numerous examples in which indigenous communities have been driven to the brink of extinction.
Furthermore, plantations offer very low wages, tough working conditions and poor job security. In Brazil, 200,000 people work in the cane fields in conditions of virtual slavery.
Will biofuels break the power of the oil companies, utilities and automotive industry?
No, these industries have been on the bandwagon for quite some time. With their backing, biofuels are experiencing a boom of a magnitude last seen in Rockefeller’s day. Policymakers, international organizations and corporations in the oil, chemical, agricultural, genetic engineering and automotive industry have formed a new unholy alliance: Shell, BP, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Repsol YPF, Petrobras, ADM, Cargill, Bunge, Bayer, DuPont, BASF, Monsanto, Volkswagen, General Motors and Ford are among the key players.
Do biofuels affect the production of food?
The biofuel boom has already led to shorter supplies and price increases for major staple foods. Poor people simply cannot compete with car owners in terms of purchasing power. Worldwide, 800 million people go hungry and 3.6 billion live below the poverty line. Many of them have to make do with the equivalent of one euro a day. Poor people in developing countries are being hit much harder than the residents of industrialized countries. By filling our tanks with biofuel, we are contributing to widespread hunger and famines elsewhere. The United Nations World Food Program has already had to reduce food deliveries to famine areas. The grain needed to fill the tank of a luxury car with ethanol would feed one adult for a whole year. If the car were to be refueled every 2 weeks, the amount of grain required could feed 26 people for one year. The impact can be seen in the prices for corn tortillas – the staple food for poor people in Mexico – which more than doubled within months. Food riots ensued. Even in the EU, prices for edible vegetable fats have increased significantly.
What are “second-generation” biofuels?
Renowned research institutions have shown that the energy balance of current biofuels is very poor. In some cases, its production consumes more energy than the fuel ultimately provides. As a result, biofuels are not economically viable without government subsidies.
Corporations are now trying to optimize the yield and energy efficiency of plants and processes for biofuels production and patent their work. Their objective is to produce more biofuel from the same land area and same volume of biomass.
Biofuels are currently produced from plant sugars and oils. These substances make up only a small part of the plant biomass, however – the bulk consists of cellulose and lignin. Researchers are currently working on producing ethanol from cellulosic plant stems and wood. This will involve risky experimentation with genetically modified microbes, plants and trees.
The outcome of their research is completely uncertain, and most certainly a long way off. Energy efficiency can only be increased within technical, physical and biological limits. Covering our energy needs with biomass for biofuels would entail expanding its production into the last intact ecosystems and remaining arable soils.